Gums are an important part of mouth, they keep teeth in the socket and ultimately help in chewing. They are like the support system of teeth, without which teeth cannot function. And just like any other part of body they are also prone to infection. You will be surprised to know but there are more than 600 bacterial species in the mouth, all fighting to secure a place for its survival. So imagine how much hard work gums have to do in order to keep teeth secure. Nonetheless, there are various types of infections which can still occur.
The most common type is known as ‘Gingivitis’ which occurs due to deposition of a sticky whitish layer on the teeth, known as ‘plaque’ which if not cleaned properly tends to harden and calcify to form calculus. With time, when a person fails to brush properly or is unable to take care of Gingivitis, the disease advances to ‘Periodontitis’ which is also commonly known as ‘Pyrrhoea’. As food particles, bacterial dead cells deposit and keep on getting hardened, creating a barrier between teeth and gums which attach teeth to bone. As a result, teeth become loose and start moving, there is bone loss due to advanced stage of the disease and ultimately teeth fall. The first sign to look for is bleeding from gums, which can occur during brushing or biting on any hard food stuff. Other sign is swelling of gums and visible hard deposits or calculus on teeth, which are more on the lingual side of the teeth.
There are many other infections such as an abscess formation, Gingival Tumours, Gingival enlargement occurring commonly in patients wearing braces and Gingival diseases modified by systemic conditions such as diabetes, pregnancy, blood dyscrasias or tuberculosis. There are many other diseases which are allergic in nature and some occur due to certain medicines consumed. Gingival disease also occurs in case of malnutrition. In all of these diseases the first sign is swelling and bleeding from gums and the intensity depends upon plaque and calculus deposits. Scientific studies have proven that plaque and calculus deposits can also cause various diseases, as many as 40! Including, heart diseases, lung infections, mental problems, arthritis, Gastro-Intestinal problems, pre-term child birth and even Cancer!
So what can one do if you observe aforementioned signs? The first step is to visit a clinic nearby, and get a professional cleaning, also known as ‘scaling’ of teeth done. Calculus cannot be removed by brushing and professional help is required. The most common query patients have is loosening of teeth after scaling, which is transient and post scaling teeth become stronger as the barrier between the teeth and gums is removed. For Periodontitis usually a surgery is required, depending upon the intensity of the Disease, which is a safe procedure. For other diseases, a visit to the dental surgeon is paramount and diagnosis can only be made after a thorough check-up.
Hence a check-up to your dentist in every 6 months is important for maintenance of good oral health and general well being.
Before & After Picture Gallery
Tobacco stains and Attrition
Scaling or Teeth Cleaning
Long Root Visible
Scaling and Root Planing is a non-surgical treatment usually recommended to most periodontal patients as the first mode of treatment. It is a careful cleaning of the root surfaces below the gum line to remove plaque, toxins and tartar from the root surfaces of the teeth. This procedure is more intensive than a routine general dental prophylaxis or cleaning, which traditionally occurs every six months.
For your comfort, the area may be numbed prior to treatment. In some cases, systemic antibiotics (antibiotics taken orally) or locally administered antibiotics (antibiotics placed into periodontal pockets) are prescribed at the time of the SRP procedure.
Antibiotics will help fight infections caused by the bacteria. Each time you take a systemic antibiotic, you increase your chance of developing drug resistant bacteria. That is why, it is important to take antibiotics only as prescribed when necessary.
Research has consistently demonstrated that SRP reduces Gingival inflammation and probing depths, and shifts the bacterial composition living in these pockets from one that is associated with disease toward one associated with health.
Your bone and gum tissue should fit snugly around your teeth like a turtleneck around your neck. When you have periodontal disease, this supporting tissue and bone is destroyed, forming “pockets” around the teeth.
Over time, these pockets become deeper, providing a larger space for bacteria to live. As bacteria develop around the teeth, they can accumulate and advance under the gum tissue. These deep pockets collect even more bacteria, resulting in further bone and tissue loss. Eventually, if too much bone is lost, the teeth will need to be extracted.
Your Periodontist measures the depth of your pocket. A Periodontal pocket reduction procedure is recommended when you have pockets that are too deep to clean with daily at home Oral Hygiene routine.
During this procedure, your periodontist folds back the gum tissue and removes the disease-causing bacteria before securing the tissue into place. In some cases, irregular surfaces of the damaged bone are smoothed to limit areas where disease-causing bacteria can hide. This allows the gum tissue to better reattach to healthy bone.
Reducing pocket depth and eliminating existing bacteria are important to prevent damage caused by the progression of periodontal disease and to help you maintain a healthy smile. Eliminating bacteria alone may not be sufficient to prevent disease recurrence. Deeper pockets are more difficult for you and your dental care professional to clean, so it’s important for you to reduce them. Reduced pockets and a combination of daily oral hygiene and professional maintenance care increase your chances of keeping your natural teeth – and decrease the chance of serious health problems associated with periodontal disease.
Pericoronitis is inflammation of the gum tissue surrounding the crown portion of a tooth. Pericoronitis usually affects the lower third molar (wisdom) tooth where gum tissue overlaps the chewing surface of the tooth. Pericoronitis can be either chronic or acute. Chronic pericoronitis is a mild persistent inflammation of the area. Acute pericoronitis is when the symptoms intensify to fever, swelling, and pain which indicate a spreading infection.
Pericoronitis is differentiated from gum disease (or periodontitis) in that it occurs specifically around a partially erupted tooth where the tooth has not completely emerged from the gum overlying it. The cause of this condition is similar to the formation of a gum abcess in periodontitis by the entrapment of debris under the gum tissue.
If the pericoronitis is limited to the tooth (for example, if the pain and swelling has not spread), treat it by rinsing your mouth with warm salt water. You should also make sure that the gum flap has no food trapped under it.
If your tooth, jaw, and cheek are swollen and painful, see your dentist right away. He or she can treat the infection with antibiotics (usually penicillin, unless you are allergic). You can also take pain relievers such as aspirin, acetaminophen, or ibuprofen. The dentist may also prescribe a pain medication
If the pain and inflammation are severe, or if the pericoronitis recurs, it may be necessary to have oral surgery to remove the gum flap or wisdom tooth.
Frenectomy is a scary sounding word for a fairly simple and common procedure that addresses a few different medical problems, usually in the mouth and in children. The word frenum, or frenulum, describes the tough tissue that attaches any organ to the its neighboring tissue to prevent it from moving too much.
Think of it as a kind of tether to limit movement. There a several frenums in the human body, but only a few that commonly require Frenectomy, and they are all inside the mouth. Common Frenectomies involve the tongue and upper lip.
In some cases, the frenum is too short, tight or tough, and basically does its job too well. The inhibited movement causes difficulty with regular tasks like eating and talking, or hurts proper development in children, leading to aesthetic problems. The Frenectomy is the simple procedure by which the frenulum is severed and typically removed to free up more movement. It’s a low-risk, outpatient procedure that is usually successful the first time in solving the targeted problem
There are a few different ways to perform a frenectomy, but they are all fairly low impact and heal in a relatively short amount of time. The most basic Frenectomy procedure is done with a scalpel or scissors. It is quite simple as a doctor uses an incision to release the frenum and excise it. The immediate area will be numbed usually with a topical anesthetic, and sometimes in young children laughing gas will be used to relax the patient. Depending on how much of frenum is severed or removed, there may be sutures to reposition the tissue. Usually dissolvable sutures will be sufficient.
A true Frenectomy describes the removal the frenum, but in the case of a very young infant, it may be possible to just clip it. There is another newer, more frequently used technique involving laser surgery. The procedure performs basically the same tactic, but uses a small laser to zap the frenum with pulses, gently severing the tissue. Doctors like this version of the Frenectomy, since it tends to reduce bleeding, cause less tissue damage, and improve healing and post-procedure pain.
Dental crown lengthening involves the reshaping of excess gum and bone tissue to expose more of your natural tooth. This can be done to one tooth, to your gum line, or to several teeth to expose a more natural confident smile.
A dental crown lengthening also helps make a restorative or cosmetic dental treatment possible. This is recommended if your tooth is decayed, broken below the gum line, or has insufficient tooth structure for a restoration like a dental crown or bridge. Crown lengthening adjusts the gum and bone level to expose more of your tooth so it can be restored.
Gingivectomy is periodontal surgery that removes and reforms diseased gum tissue or other gingival buildup related to serious underlying conditions. It may be performed to heal the effects of periodontal disease or to correct a gum condition involving the structures around the teeth. It is one of a few procedures that can help reverse periodontal issues.The procedure is the total removal of a portion of gingiva (gum) from in and around a tooth or teeth in order to treat gum disease or to lengthen the height or width of a tooth or a section of teeth.
Another type of periodontal surgery is called a Gingivoplasty. A Gingivoplasty is different than a Gingivectomy as the former only involves a partial removal of the gums (plasty). The latter removes an entire portion of a gum section
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